looking this good must be a crime.
aesthetic appreciation of vaguely lesbian things


Apr 12th | 1449

❝I am a friend, comrades, a friend!❞

Yuri Gagarin’s first words upon returning to earth, to a woman and a girl near where his capsule landed. (12 April 1961) The woman asked: “Can it be that you have come from outer space?” to which Gagarin replied: "As a matter of fact, I have!" (via asonlynasacan)

Reblogging again for today’s historical significance

(via asonlynasacan)

(Source: billionquotes.com)

1449 notes Apr 12 via cosmicnarwhals originally asonlynasacan
tagged: ▫historyspace
Jan 20th | 5970

sources for prepatriarchal persephone

auntiewitch:

"However, long before the mythical Hades was ever conceived, in more ancient, pre-patriarchal times, Persephone was Queen of the Underworld and was another form of Hecate. Originally, the Triple Goddess was represented by Kore, the virgin; Demeter, the mother preserver; and Hecate or Persephone, the destroyer. In later years, Kore and Persephone became the same Goddess. The pomegranate was an ancient symbol of female fertility; the souls of the underworld ate pomegranates so that they could be reborn. They are standing in front of a bas-relief of their reunion from Eleusis, Greece, early 5th century BCE and are holding Boetian figures used in the Demeter and Persephone rites from the mid 6th century BCE. Demeter’s ribbed seed necklace is from Kourion, 400-300 BCE; her earring is part of a pendant with 2 bees from Mallia, Middle Minoan, 1700-1550 BCE. Persephone’s pomegranate pendant is from Enkomi, Cyprus, 1400-1300 BCE; her earring is from Mycenae, 1550-1500 BCE; her bracelet from Thessaly, 8th century BCE.” (x)

"In another sense a process was completed that had been in motion since the dawn of the patriarchy. In the earliest representations of the story of Demeter and Persephone, only the Goddesses were present. As the patriarchy gained power, the story was changed. Persephone, instead of going of her own free will into the underworld, was abducted by the (now male) God of Death and became his captive bride. In the stories of Ishtar and Inanna, male “consorts” were introduced. In the legend of Isis, the Dying Goddess became the male Osiris.” (x)

The rape motif in the story underscores that the Hellenic takeover was a violent one that wrested power from women. In the words of Robert Graves, “It refers to male usurpation of the female agricultural mysteries in primitive times.”” (x)

Basically, if you can’t grasp that fact that Persephone’s rape was a patriarchal representation and installation of the Greek’s doing as a means to oppress Goddess worship and the matriarchy, wow, I don’t know even know what do for you.

Jan 5th | 451

❝In 1903, Japanese agricultural workers joined with their Mexican fellow workers in a strike against sugar-beet growers in Ventura County, California. After winning the strike, they organized a local union and applied to the American Federation of Labor for a charter. President Gompers [of the AFL] himself wrote back to J.M. Larraras, the local secretary, explaining that Federation policy prohibited issuance of charters to locals with Asian members. Larraras replied that the Mexicans would ‘stand by our Japanese brothers’ because the Asian immigrants also stood by them. Displaying far more class-consciousness than Gompers, Larraras continued: ‘We would be false to them, to ourselves, and to the cause of unionism if we now accepted privileges for ourselves which are not accorded to them.’❞

James Green, The World of the Worker: Labor in Twentieth-Century America

This book is such a magnificent read. It has so much useful information on people of color, immigrants, and women in labor unions and has really great information on wildcat strikes, general strikes, and the IWW.

(via marxvx)

451 notes Jan 5 via chestnut-podfic originally marxvx
tagged: ▫historybooksto read
Dec 18th | 130311

vintagegal:

Affectionate Ladies c. 1900s-1980s

130311 notes Dec 18 via amazonpoodle originally vintagegal
tagged: ▫queer stuffhistory
Dec 16th | 1904
1904 notes Dec 16 via moniquill originally medievalpoc
tagged: ▫historyinterestingracism
Dec 14th | 32473 wolvensnothere:

totallynotagentphilcoulson:

stormingtheivory:

ebvoice:

camembertlylegal:

annachronism:

dontcrosscross:

thegeekyblonde:

renkris:


I tell this story to everyone, ever since I heard it in a documentary on Art Nouveau. Stop fucking up pretty hats, you bastards!

every time i see this, my smile is renewed

I honestly do like fedoras ><

…It’s amazing what a tangential connection to Alphonse Mucha (who was Bernhardt’s official poster artist for many, many years and was one of the key intellectuals that she used to craft her image) can do for my opinion on a piece of clothing.
Incidentally, Bernhardt’s leg that was amputated? Apparently she had a funeral for it.  People act like modern pop stars stars are a totally new radical weird thing but man Fin-de-Siecle Europe was a wild, wild place.
And here’s some images of Bernhardt courtesy of Mucha:


Man, Medea always gets me. What a haunting image.
But damn look at her as the fucking Prince of Denmark. Nnf. 

I always get so pissed off at the whole co-opting of fedoras by the men’s rights movement because it wasn’t really until the fedora started going out of fashion that it became a men’s hat. Throughout its heyday of the first four decades of the 20th century it was pretty much always a unisex hat, as it was in the 1980s when it started to tentatively almost come back into fashion

I’ve told you before, I tell at least 40 students every semester, I’ll repost it every fucking time it comes up, until it Sinks In:MRA’s wearing fedoras and claiming them as “Men’s Hats” is one of the most succinct arguments I can give for feminism.

wolvensnothere:

totallynotagentphilcoulson:

stormingtheivory:

ebvoice:

camembertlylegal:

annachronism:

dontcrosscross:

thegeekyblonde:

renkris:

I tell this story to everyone, ever since I heard it in a documentary on Art Nouveau. Stop fucking up pretty hats, you bastards!

every time i see this, my smile is renewed

I honestly do like fedoras ><

…It’s amazing what a tangential connection to Alphonse Mucha (who was Bernhardt’s official poster artist for many, many years and was one of the key intellectuals that she used to craft her image) can do for my opinion on a piece of clothing.

Incidentally, Bernhardt’s leg that was amputated? Apparently she had a funeral for it.  People act like modern pop stars stars are a totally new radical weird thing but man Fin-de-Siecle Europe was a wild, wild place.

And here’s some images of Bernhardt courtesy of Mucha:

image

imageimage

Man, Medea always gets me. What a haunting image.

But damn look at her as the fucking Prince of Denmark. Nnf. 

I always get so pissed off at the whole co-opting of fedoras by the men’s rights movement because it wasn’t really until the fedora started going out of fashion that it became a men’s hat. Throughout its heyday of the first four decades of the 20th century it was pretty much always a unisex hat, as it was in the 1980s when it started to tentatively almost come back into fashion

I’ve told you before, I tell at least 40 students every semester, I’ll repost it every fucking time it comes up, until it Sinks In:

MRA’s wearing fedoras and claiming them as “Men’s Hats” is one of the most succinct arguments I can give for feminism.

Dec 11th | 85463

❝If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also❞

Matt 5:39

This specifically refers to a hand striking the side of a person’s face, tells quite a different story when placed in it’s proper historical context. In Jesus’s time, striking someone of a lower class ( a servant) with the back of the hand was used to assert authority and dominance. If the persecuted person “turned the other cheek,” the discipliner was faced with a dilemma. The left hand was used for unclean purposes, so a back-hand strike on the opposite cheek would not be performed. Another alternative would be a slap with the open hand as a challenge or to punch the person, but this was seen as a statement of equality. Thus, by turning the other cheek the persecuted was in effect putting an end to the behavior or if the slapping continued the person would lawfully be deemed equal and have to be released as a servant/slave.   

(via thefullnessofthefaith)

MOther FuCKeR

(via aintlifepeachy)

THAT makes a lot more sense, now, thank you. 

(via the-world-is-a-corner)

we’re doing this rn in theology class but im gonna be That Person and ask for a source because this sounds legit but if im gonna talk about this im gonna need to cite something

(via cisphobes)

ok found a few sources for this actually so Yes this seems like a solid reading of the quote

http://www.online-literature.com/forums/showthread.php?17076-quot-Turning-the-Other-Cheek-quot

http://www.ualberta.ca/~cbidwell/DCAS/third.htm (about a third of the way down)

I need someone to preach this. I’ll have to use it in some spoken word at church.

(via queennubian)

Jesus said slap that hoe back. 

(via babybutta)

Yay, sources! I heard this a while ago but didn’t have any evidence to go on. I’m so glad. That passage isn’t about being nice to your oppressors, turning the other cheek isn’t an act of passivity. It’s about turning the tables and taking back dignity. It’s about shaming those who would oppress. People don’t seem to get that Jesus wasn’t a ‘bear your yoke quietly’ kind of guy. He was an agitator and a radical, and these kind of readings inspire me so much to fight, not just people on the street but people in the church who would have us accept their toxic teachings and ask for more.

(via risingonthewingsofdawn)

Yeah, shit like this? Just proves how much those in power deliberately warp shit to their benefit. They twist any sort of resistance to the status quo to be utterly useless and then sneak it into everything as subtle propaganda. Like how “violence is never the answer” and “an eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind” are the twisted versions that deprive folks of justice. No revolution was truly 100% bloodless, tho history can be rewritten to erase that fact, or skew it to serve as fear-mongering bullshit.

(via autie-baeddel-cat)

Dec 5th | 25967 seriesofnonsequiturs:

medievalpoc:

lyricsja:

EUROPEANS TAUGHT FOR CENTURIES that Africa had no written history, literature or philosophy (claiming Egypt was other than African). When roughly 1 MILLION manuscripts were found in Timbuktu/Mali covering , according to Reuters “all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine,” IT DID NOT MAKE MAINSTREAM NEWS as did the lies taught by Europeans concerning Africa

Someone asked me to somehow “verify” that this story is real.
Of course it’s real! The PROBLEM with the coverage regarding these manuscripts is that they’re constantly portrayed as being in “danger” because many of them are still in the possession of Malian descendants. About 700,000 have been cataloged so far, and they have had to be moved in part because apparently extremist groups have tried to firebomb them. Many others are still in the possession of the families they have been passed down in.
Many of these collected manuscripts are being housed in exile, but mold and humidity have been a constant threat. They have been raising funds to try and preserve these manuscripts-you can read more about the project to house and protect them here.
A bit of the history of these manuscripts from National Geographic:

These sacred manuscripts covered an array of subjects: astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, judicial law, government, and Islamic conflict resolution. Islamic study during this period of human history, when the intellectual evolution had stalled in the rest of Europe was growing, evolving, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, law, and philosophy within the Muslim world.
By the 1300s the “Ambassadors of Peace” centered around the University of Timbuktu created roving scholastic campuses and religious schools of learning that traveled between the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djénné, helping to serve as a model of peaceful governance throughout an often conflict-riddled tribal region.
 At its peak, over 25,000 students attended the University of Timbuktu. 
By the beginning of the 1600s with the Moroccan invasions from the north, however, the scholars of Timbuktu began to slowly drift away and study elsewhere. As a result, the city’s sacred manuscripts began to fall into disrepair. While Islamic teachings there continued for another 300 years, the biggest decline in scholastic study occurred with the French colonization of present-day Mali in the late 1890s. 

So yeah, basically the story of this collection’s source more or less ends with “…but unfortunately, colonialism”, as do most of the great cities of Africa, the Americas, and some parts of Asia.
Also, as an additional consideration:

With the pressures of poverty, a series of droughts, and a tribal Tureg rebellion in Mali that lasted over ten years, the manuscripts continue to disappear into the black market, where they are illegally sold to private and university collections in Europe and the United States. 

Notice where the blame is placed here via language use: on the people in poverty forced to sell their treasures, as opposed to the Universities in Europe and the U.S. buying them.
It’s really just another face of Neocolonialism.


I heard mention of Timbuktu when I sang in “Oliver” the musical. Then I never learned anything about it again. Shame on me and my educational system. Certainly going to be hitting up Wiki and following the links out tonight.

seriesofnonsequiturs:

medievalpoc:

lyricsja:

EUROPEANS TAUGHT FOR CENTURIES that Africa had no written history, literature or philosophy (claiming Egypt was other than African). When roughly 1 MILLION manuscripts were found in Timbuktu/Mali covering , according to Reuters “all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine,” IT DID NOT MAKE MAINSTREAM NEWS as did the lies taught by Europeans concerning Africa

Someone asked me to somehow “verify” that this story is real.

Of course it’s real! The PROBLEM with the coverage regarding these manuscripts is that they’re constantly portrayed as being in “danger” because many of them are still in the possession of Malian descendants. About 700,000 have been cataloged so far, and they have had to be moved in part because apparently extremist groups have tried to firebomb them. Many others are still in the possession of the families they have been passed down in.

Many of these collected manuscripts are being housed in exile, but mold and humidity have been a constant threat. They have been raising funds to try and preserve these manuscripts-you can read more about the project to house and protect them here.

A bit of the history of these manuscripts from National Geographic:

These sacred manuscripts covered an array of subjects: astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, judicial law, government, and Islamic conflict resolution. Islamic study during this period of human history, when the intellectual evolution had stalled in the rest of Europe was growing, evolving, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, law, and philosophy within the Muslim world.

By the 1300s the “Ambassadors of Peace” centered around the University of Timbuktu created roving scholastic campuses and religious schools of learning that traveled between the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djénné, helping to serve as a model of peaceful governance throughout an often conflict-riddled tribal region.

At its peak, over 25,000 students attended the University of Timbuktu.

By the beginning of the 1600s with the Moroccan invasions from the north, however, the scholars of Timbuktu began to slowly drift away and study elsewhere. As a result, the city’s sacred manuscripts began to fall into disrepair. While Islamic teachings there continued for another 300 years, the biggest decline in scholastic study occurred with the French colonization of present-day Mali in the late 1890s.

So yeah, basically the story of this collection’s source more or less ends with “…but unfortunately, colonialism”, as do most of the great cities of Africa, the Americas, and some parts of Asia.

Also, as an additional consideration:

With the pressures of poverty, a series of droughts, and a tribal Tureg rebellion in Mali that lasted over ten years, the manuscripts continue to disappear into the black market, where they are illegally sold to private and university collections in Europe and the United States.

Notice where the blame is placed here via language use: on the people in poverty forced to sell their treasures, as opposed to the Universities in Europe and the U.S. buying them.

It’s really just another face of Neocolonialism.

I heard mention of Timbuktu when I sang in “Oliver” the musical. Then I never learned anything about it again. Shame on me and my educational system. Certainly going to be hitting up Wiki and following the links out tonight.

25967 notes Dec 5 via moniquill originally lyricsja
tagged: ▫Timbuktuliteraturecolonialismneocolonialismhistory
Dec 2nd | 1928

Enlightenment Thinkers Invented Anti-Black Racism, FYI →

reblogginhood:

medievalpoc:

blackraincloud:

medievalpoc:

tackedtothewall:

medievalpoc:

auroramere said:

I’ve fallen hard for Sleepy Hollow and the diversity is teaching me so much about my own racism. It’s about time white people got to look at a room with four black characters in it and say, “That’s funny… I’m not there.” Surprise!

Yes, apparently this is… [tumblr snipped]

I know a lot of people have been 
reacting to Sleepy Hollow, but I’m hoping it’s making even more people *think*.

I think one of the moments which could really be thought provoking if you let it is the “I see you’ve been emancipated” moment. I mean, bully for you Mr. Crane that you were a member of the AntiSlavery society, but that was no guarantee that he was going to treat Lt. Mills like a person (he did, but that’s his magical 21st century adaptability thing. or possible over exposure to certain Enlightenment thinkers).

Anyway, this show doesn’t always make me think about race, but it certainly has me thinking about teaching historical thinking (and thinking historically) to the public through pop culture.

"over exposure to certain Enlightenment thinkers"

Uhhhhh. I hope you mean the opposite of what you said, because The Enlightenment was basically when racism as we know it today was invented.

Enlightenment thinkers like Immanuel Kant:

The Negroes of Africa have by nature no feeling that rises above the trifling. Mr. [David] Hume challenges anyone to cite a single example in which a Negro has shown talents, and asserts that among the hundreds of thousands of blacks who are transported elsewhere from their countries, although many of them have even been set free, still not a single one was ever found who presented anything great in art or science or any other praiseworthy quality, even though among the whites some continually rise aloft from the lowest rabble and through superior gifts earn respect in the world. So fundamental is the difference between these two races of man.

Enlightenment thinker David Hume the “Abolitionist”:

I am apt to suspect the negroes and in general all other species of men (for there are four or five different kinds) to be naturally inferior to the whites. There never was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white, nor even any individual eminent either in action or speculation. No ingenious manufactures amongst them, no arts, no sciences…. [T]here are NEGROE slaves dispersed all over EUROPE, of which none ever discovered any symptoms of ingenuity; tho’ low people, without education, will start up amongst us, and distinguish themselves in every profession. In JAMAICA, indeed, they talk of one negroe as a man of parts and learning; but ‘tis likely he is admired for very slender accomplishments, like a parrot, who speaks a few words plainly.

Enlightenment thinker John Locke, who is responsible for codifying race-based chattel slavery into the United States Constitution:

Sir Leslie Stephan charged Locke with personal racism for inserting section CX: “Every freeman of Carolina shall have absolute power and authority over his negro slaves, of what opinion or religion soever.” There is some evidence to suggest that Locke did play a part in formulating the sections on religion — though it is possible this may have been at the bidding of Lord Ashley. […] David Armitage has shown that Locke was involved over the years in amending the Fundamental Constitutions of the Carolinas right up to the time at which he was writing the Two Treatises of Government, and while many articles of the Constitutions were removed at various times, this was not the case with the clause about negro slavery. Armitage implies that this shows not only that Locke agreed with the clause about negro slavery in the Fundamental Constitutions but that we should interpret the Second Treatise account of slavery as intended to justify the institutions and practices of Afro-American slavery.

Enlightenment thinker Thomas Jefferson:

Jefferson also dodged opportunities to undermine slavery or promote racial equality. As a state legislator he blocked consideration of a law that might have eventually ended slavery in the state.

As president he acquired the Louisiana Territory but did nothing to stop the spread of slavery into that vast “empire of liberty.” Jefferson told his neighbor Edward Coles not to emancipate his own slaves, because free blacks were “pests in society” who were “as incapable as children of taking care of themselves.” And while he wrote a friend that he sold slaves only as punishment or to unite families, he sold at least 85 humans in a 10-year period to raise cash to buy wine, art and other luxury goods.

Destroying families didn’t bother Jefferson, because he believed blacks lacked basic human emotions. “Their griefs are transient,” he wrote, and their love lacked “a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation.”

Jefferson claimed he had “never seen an elementary trait of painting or sculpture” or poetry among blacks and argued that blacks’ ability to “reason” was “much inferior” to whites’, while “in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous.” He conceded that blacks were brave, but this was because of “a want of fore-thought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present.”

So, I can only assume that it’s a LACK of exposure to Enlightenment thinkers that presumably led to our fictional character Ichabod Crane, time traveling Apocalypse-Thwarter, to eschew the violent and virulent racism that was a product of his time.

CARL LINNAEUS!!!!! CARL LINNAEUS!!!! TAXONOMY AND SCIENCE STUDY OF “NATURE” ALL DEFINED “HUMANITY” AS “EVERYTHING THAT’S NOT NOR HAS ANYTHING TO DO WITH BLACK PEOPLE”

Yep. Pretty much all of them. It’s still fairly difficult really see a tangible difference between “science” and “scientific racism”. I do make that claim, and yes I can back it up.

Lightweight Version

Hardcore Version

Don’t forget Montesquieu’s highly influential and fundamentally racist theory of climatic influence on national character.

Nov 22nd | 2423

ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World →

medievalpoc:

kathleenbrook:

medievalpoc:

Spanning one-ninth of the earth’s circumference across three continents, the Roman Empire ruled a quarter of humanity through complex networks of political power, military domination and economic exchange. These extensive connections were sustained by premodern transportation and communication technologies that relied on energy generated by human and animal bodies, winds, and currents.

Conventional maps that represent this world as it appears from space signally fail to capture the severe environmental constraints that governed the flows of people, goods and information. Cost, rather than distance, is the principal determinant of connectivity.

For the first time, ORBIS allows us to express Roman communication costs in terms of both time and expense. By simulating movement along the principal routes of the Roman road network, the main navigable rivers, and hundreds of sea routes in the Mediterranean, Black Sea and coastal Atlantic, this interactive model reconstructs the duration and financial cost of travel in antiquity.

Taking account of seasonal variation and accommodating a wide range of modes and means of transport, ORBIS reveals the true shape of the Roman world and provides a unique resource for our understanding of premodern history.

Not gonna lie, this is kind of amazing.

Basically, you can plan a trip from Rome to Alexandria, and get an estimate of journey time, expense of trip, the supplies you’ll need….let’s just say it’s better than Oregon Trail:

image

image

image

image

This looks SO COOL!

IT REALLY IS!

Imagine the possibilities for this as a world-building tool, for example. Like, if I can travel 2686 km in 15 days? On a donkey and a boat and a carriage? Like, for fantasy or historical fiction writers? ZOMG!!!

Incidentally this sort of explodes a lot of myths about the realities of travel in the ancient world. It’s really interesting to consider the possibilities for travel as a mobility-disabled person during this time, too.

2423 notes Nov 22 via aintgotnoladytronblues originally medievalpoc
tagged: ▫referenceinfographicshistoryrome
Nov 1st | 807

The REAL 'Lone Ranger' Was An African American Lawman Who Lived With Native American Indians →

theprophetlilith:

If the Lone Ranger reboot was actually about THIS man, I would have gone to see it.

Unless they insisted on keeping Johnny Depp. Euw.

(Source: audscratprophetlilith)

807 notes Nov 1 via racebending originally audscratprophetlilith
tagged: ▫Whitewashingblackhistorylone rangertonto
Oct 20th | 497913

becca-morley:

history

497913 notes Oct 20 via chestnut-podfic originally becca-morley
tagged: ▫historypfft
Oct 15th | 210

ellydwerewolf:

omfg there is no ~mystery~ of roanoke they literally just integrated w/ local natives

do white historians really find that so completely unbelievable that they felt the need to build some massive faux mystery around what was obviously just a bunch of colonists realizing they couldn’t hack it and moving in with the people that could??

wait why am i surprised by this, fuckers are so invested in the myth of white superiority it totally stands to reason that the idea of colonists not only intermingling w/ natives but doing so out of necessity due to their own failings would be so repugnant as to warrant invocation of some sort of supernatural intervention

(Source: idkunicornthings)

Oct 7th | 1772 shredsandpatches:

cakesandfail:

shredsandpatches:

magpieandwhale:

wehaveallgotknives:

teapotsahoy:

some-stars

francescadarimini:

odysseiarex:

oldrowley:

will
u ok

#william ezhurbltre the greatest playwright of our age

#someone please help will shakespeare

#this is not going to be nearly so funny in the morning


spoiler warning it’s exactly as funny

Shall I compare thee to a lajskdhflaskjfhf

Every time I see this post I want to point out that Shakespeare’s handwriting wasn’t unusually illegible by the standards of his time. We think it looks weird and have a hard time figuring out how you can get anything like “William Shakespeare” out of it, but here are some examples of contemporary signatures:
Christopher Marlowe (or, as he spelled it, Cristofer Marley):

John Donne:

Edmund Spenser:

Sir Walter Ralegh:

William Cecil, Lord Burghley:

Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton:


omg thank you ahh
I mean obviously I originally posted this for lols but I love it when people share history things on it because YAY LEARNING.
Also, it’s interesting looking at these signatures and thinking about what those people did with their time- how the courtiers have big swirly signatures, and Cecil has a very neat signature, for example. (and then Shakespeare and Marlowe clearly just not giving a shit and slapping it down however)

YAY LEARNING. I didn’t post it to be a pedantic scold, either, but I think knowing what signatures tended to look like back then is a useful thing — this is particularly true since it’s good ammunition against people who try to claim that Shakespeare’s signature (and that of his daughter Susanna) indicated that he was illiterate and thus not the author of the plays.Not that I think anyone reblogging this wanted to suggest that! It’s just that anti-Shakespearean canards like that tend to get out there and fester.
There are actually names for the different types of handwriting seen here! The kind used in the swirly courtier signatures is called italic hand — an excellent example can be seen in the writing of Elizabeth I:

Shakespeare and Marlowe are using “secretary hand,” which is much harder for modern readers (I’ve been trying for ages to teach myself to read it and I’m not very good) but which was used by people whose jobs included a lot of writing — hence the name! It looks like this:

There’s a tutorial on it here, if you want to learn to read it. Then you can try it out on this page, which is generally believed to be in Shakespeare’s handwriting.
As a side note, signatures can offer useful evidence about authorship. Take a look at the signature of leading “candidate” Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford:

He has neater handwriting than William Shakespeare, maybe, but look how he signs his name: Edward Oxenford. Again, a perfectly valid spelling for the time, and one that de Vere uses consistently (as did several of his ancestors) — but look at this and then compare to this. Not an Oxenford in the bunch. Oxfordians: PWNED.

shredsandpatches:

cakesandfail:

shredsandpatches:

magpieandwhale:

wehaveallgotknives:

teapotsahoy:

some-stars

francescadarimini:

odysseiarex:

oldrowley:

will

u ok

#william ezhurbltre the greatest playwright of our age

spoiler warning it’s exactly as funny

Shall I compare thee to a lajskdhflaskjfhf

Every time I see this post I want to point out that Shakespeare’s handwriting wasn’t unusually illegible by the standards of his time. We think it looks weird and have a hard time figuring out how you can get anything like “William Shakespeare” out of it, but here are some examples of contemporary signatures:

Christopher Marlowe (or, as he spelled it, Cristofer Marley):

John Donne:

Edmund Spenser:

Sir Walter Ralegh:

William Cecil, Lord Burghley:

Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton:

omg thank you ahh

I mean obviously I originally posted this for lols but I love it when people share history things on it because YAY LEARNING.

Also, it’s interesting looking at these signatures and thinking about what those people did with their time- how the courtiers have big swirly signatures, and Cecil has a very neat signature, for example. (and then Shakespeare and Marlowe clearly just not giving a shit and slapping it down however)

YAY LEARNING. I didn’t post it to be a pedantic scold, either, but I think knowing what signatures tended to look like back then is a useful thing — this is particularly true since it’s good ammunition against people who try to claim that Shakespeare’s signature (and that of his daughter Susanna) indicated that he was illiterate and thus not the author of the plays.Not that I think anyone reblogging this wanted to suggest that! It’s just that anti-Shakespearean canards like that tend to get out there and fester.

There are actually names for the different types of handwriting seen here! The kind used in the swirly courtier signatures is called italic hand — an excellent example can be seen in the writing of Elizabeth I:

Shakespeare and Marlowe are using “secretary hand,” which is much harder for modern readers (I’ve been trying for ages to teach myself to read it and I’m not very good) but which was used by people whose jobs included a lot of writing — hence the name! It looks like this:

There’s a tutorial on it here, if you want to learn to read it. Then you can try it out on this page, which is generally believed to be in Shakespeare’s handwriting.

As a side note, signatures can offer useful evidence about authorship. Take a look at the signature of leading “candidate” Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford:


He has neater handwriting than William Shakespeare, maybe, but look how he signs his name: Edward Oxenford. Again, a perfectly valid spelling for the time, and one that de Vere uses consistently (as did several of his ancestors) — but look at this and then compare to this. Not an Oxenford in the bunch. Oxfordians: PWNED.

1772 notes Oct 7 via lightningplasma originally cakesandfail
tagged: ▫history
Jan 10th | 8331

oxfordcommas:

10 Things You Should Know About Slavery and Won’t Learn at ‘Django’

Consequently, here’s my top-10 list of things everyone should know about the economic roots of slavery.

1) Slavery laid the foundation for the modern international economic system.
The massive infrastructure required to move 8 to 10 million Africans halfway around the world built entire cities in England and France, such as Liverpool, Manchester and Bordeaux. It was key to London’s emergence as a global capital of commerce, and spurred New York’s rise as a center of finance. The industry to construct, fund, staff, and administer the thousands of ships which made close to 50,000 individual voyages was alone a herculean task. The international financial and distribution networks required to coordinate, maintain and profit from slavery set the framework for the modern global economy.

2) Africans’ economic skills were a leading reason for their enslavement.
Africans possessed unique expertise which Europeans required to make their colonial ventures successful. Africans knew how to grow and cultivate crops in tropical and semi-tropical climates. African rice growers, for instance, were captured in order to bring their agricultural knowledge to America’s sea islands and those of the Caribbean. Many West African civilizations possessed goldsmiths and expert metal workers on a grand scale. These slaves were snatched to work in Spanish and Portuguese gold and silver mines throughout Central and South America. Contrary to the myth of unskilled labor, large numbers of Africans were anything but.

3) African know-how transformed slave economies into some of the wealthiest on the planet.
The fruits of the slave trade funded the growth of global empires. The greatest source of wealth for imperial France was the “white gold” of sugar produced by Africans in Haiti. More riches flowed to Britain from the slave economy of Jamaica than all of the original American 13 colonies combined. Those resources underwrote the Industrial Revolution and vast improvements in Western Europe’s economic infrastructure.

4) Until it was destroyed by the Civil War, slavery made the American South the richest and most powerful region in America.
Slavery was a national enterprise, but the economic and political center of gravity during the U.S.’s first incarnation as a slave republic was the South. This was true even during the colonial era. Virginia was its richest colony and George Washington was one of its wealthiest people because of his slaves. The majority of the new country’s presidents and Supreme Court justices were Southerners.

However, the invention of the cotton gin took the South’s national economic dominance and transformed it into a global phenomenon. British demand for American cotton, as I have written before, made the southern stretch of the Mississippi River the Silicon Valley of its era. The single largest concentration of America’s millionaires was gathered in plantations along the Mississippi’s banks. The first and only president of the Confederacy—Jefferson Davis—was a Mississippi, millionaire slave holder.

5) Defense of slavery, more than taxes, was pivotal to America’s declaration of independence.
The South had long resisted Northern calls to leave the British Empire. That’s because the South sold most of its slave-produced products to Britain and relied on the British Navy to protect the slave trade. But a court case in England changed all of that. In 1775, a British court ruled that slaves could not be held in the United Kingdom against their will. Fearing that the ruling would apply to the American colonies, the Southern planters swung behind the Northern push for greater autonomy. In 1776, one year later, America left its former colonial master. The issue of slavery was so powerful that it changed the course of history.

6) The brutalization and psychological torture of slaves was designed to ensure that plantations stayed in the black financially.
Slave revolts and acts of sabotage were relatively common on Southern plantations. As economic enterprises, the disruption in production was bad for business. Over time a system of oppression emerged to keep things humming along. This centered on singling out slaves for public torture who had either participated in acts of defiance or who tended towards noncompliance. In fact, the most recalcitrant slaves were sent to institutions, such as the “Sugar House” in Charleston, S.C., where cruelty was used to elicit cooperation. Slavery’s most inhumane aspects were just another tool to guarantee the bottom line.

7) The economic success of former slaves during Reconstruction led to the rise of the Klu Klux Klan.
In less than 10 years after the end of slavery, blacks created thriving communities and had gained political power—including governorships and Senate seats—across the South. Former slaves, such Atlanta’s Alonzo Herndon, had even become millionaires in the post-war period. But the move towards black economic empowerment had upset the old economic order. Former planters organized themselves into White Citizens Councils and created an armed wing—the Klu Klux Klan—to undermine black economic institutions and to force blacks into sharecropping on unfair terms. Isabel Wilkerson’s Pulitzer Prize-winning book, “The Warmth of Other Suns”, details the targeting of black individuals, as well as entire black communities, for acts of terror whose purpose was to enforce economic apartheid.

8) The desire to maintain economic oppression is why the South was one of the most anti-tax regions of the nation.
Before the Civil War, the South routinely blocked national infrastructure protects. These plans, focused on Northern and Western states, would have moved non-slave goods to market quickly and cheaply. The South worried that such investments would increase the power of the free-labor economy and hurt their own, which was based on slavery. Moreover, the South was vehemently opposed to taxes even to improve the lives of non-slaveholding white citizens. The first public school in the North, Boston Latin, opened its doors in the mid-1600s. The first public school in the South opened 200 years later. Maintenance of slavery was the South’s top priority to the detriment of everything else.

9) Many firms on Wall Street made fortunes from funding the slave trade.
Investment in slavery was one of the most profitable economic activities throughout most of New York’s 350 year history. Much of the financing for the slave economy flowed through New York banks. Marquis names such as JP Morgan Chase and New York Life all profited greatly from slavery. Lehman Brothers, one of Wall Street’s largest firms until 2008, got its start in the slave economy of Alabama. Slavery was so important to the city that New York was one the most pro-slavery urban municipalities in the North.

10) The wealth gap between whites and blacks, the result of slavery, has yet to be closed.
The total value of slaves, or “property” as they were then known, could exceed $12 million in today’s dollars on the largest plantations. With land, machinery, crops and buildings added in, the wealth of southern agricultural enterprises was truly astronomical. Yet when slavery ended, the people that generated the wealth received nothing.

The country has struggled with the implications of this inequity ever since. With policy changes in Washington since 1865, sometimes this economic gulf has narrowed and sometimes it’s widened, but the economic difference has never been erased. Today, the wealth gap between whites and blacks is the largest recorded since records began to be kept three decades ago.

Definitely didn’t know a bunch of this.