EUROPEANS TAUGHT FOR CENTURIES that Africa had no written history, literature or philosophy (claiming Egypt was other than African). When roughly 1 MILLION manuscripts were found in Timbuktu/Mali covering , according to Reuters “all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine,” IT DID NOT MAKE MAINSTREAM NEWS as did the lies taught by Europeans concerning Africa
Someone asked me to somehow “verify” that this story is real.
Of course it’s real! The PROBLEM with the coverage regarding these manuscripts is that they’re constantly portrayed as being in “danger” because many of them are still in the possession of Malian descendants. About 700,000 have been cataloged so far, and they have had to be moved in part because apparently extremist groups have tried to firebomb them. Many others are still in the possession of the families they have been passed down in.
Many of these collected manuscripts are being housed in exile, but mold and humidity have been a constant threat. They have been raising funds to try and preserve these manuscripts-you can read more about the project to house and protect them here.
A bit of the history of these manuscripts from National Geographic:
These sacred manuscripts covered an array of subjects: astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, judicial law, government, and Islamic conflict resolution. Islamic study during this period of human history, when the intellectual evolution had stalled in the rest of Europe was growing, evolving, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, law, and philosophy within the Muslim world.
By the 1300s the “Ambassadors of Peace” centered around the University of Timbuktu created roving scholastic campuses and religious schools of learning that traveled between the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djénné, helping to serve as a model of peaceful governance throughout an often conflict-riddled tribal region.
At its peak, over 25,000 students attended the University of Timbuktu.
By the beginning of the 1600s with the Moroccan invasions from the north, however, the scholars of Timbuktu began to slowly drift away and study elsewhere. As a result, the city’s sacred manuscripts began to fall into disrepair. While Islamic teachings there continued for another 300 years, the biggest decline in scholastic study occurred with the French colonization of present-day Mali in the late 1890s.
So yeah, basically the story of this collection’s source more or less ends with “…but unfortunately, colonialism”, as do most of the great cities of Africa, the Americas, and some parts of Asia.
Also, as an additional consideration:
With the pressures of poverty, a series of droughts, and a tribal Tureg rebellion in Mali that lasted over ten years, the manuscripts continue to disappear into the black market, where they are illegally sold to private and university collections in Europe and the United States.
Notice where the blame is placed here via language use: on the people in poverty forced to sell their treasures, as opposed to the Universities in Europe and the U.S. buying them.
It’s really just another face of Neocolonialism.
I heard mention of Timbuktu when I sang in “Oliver” the musical. Then I never learned anything about it again. Shame on me and my educational system. Certainly going to be hitting up Wiki and following the links out tonight.
u okspoiler warning it’s exactly as funny
Shall I compare thee to a lajskdhflaskjfhf
Every time I see this post I want to point out that Shakespeare’s handwriting wasn’t unusually illegible by the standards of his time. We think it looks weird and have a hard time figuring out how you can get anything like “William Shakespeare” out of it, but here are some examples of contemporary signatures:
Christopher Marlowe (or, as he spelled it, Cristofer Marley):
Sir Walter Ralegh:
William Cecil, Lord Burghley:
Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton:
omg thank you ahh
I mean obviously I originally posted this for lols but I love it when people share history things on it because YAY LEARNING.
Also, it’s interesting looking at these signatures and thinking about what those people did with their time- how the courtiers have big swirly signatures, and Cecil has a very neat signature, for example. (and then Shakespeare and Marlowe clearly just not giving a shit and slapping it down however)
YAY LEARNING. I didn’t post it to be a pedantic scold, either, but I think knowing what signatures tended to look like back then is a useful thing — this is particularly true since it’s good ammunition against people who try to claim that Shakespeare’s signature (and that of his daughter Susanna) indicated that he was illiterate and thus not the author of the plays.Not that I think anyone reblogging this wanted to suggest that! It’s just that anti-Shakespearean canards like that tend to get out there and fester.
There are actually names for the different types of handwriting seen here! The kind used in the swirly courtier signatures is called italic hand — an excellent example can be seen in the writing of Elizabeth I:
Shakespeare and Marlowe are using “secretary hand,” which is much harder for modern readers (I’ve been trying for ages to teach myself to read it and I’m not very good) but which was used by people whose jobs included a lot of writing — hence the name! It looks like this:
As a side note, signatures can offer useful evidence about authorship. Take a look at the signature of leading “candidate” Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford:
He has neater handwriting than William Shakespeare, maybe, but look how he signs his name: Edward Oxenford. Again, a perfectly valid spelling for the time, and one that de Vere uses consistently (as did several of his ancestors) — but look at this and then compare to this. Not an Oxenford in the bunch. Oxfordians: PWNED.
Aotearoa/New Zealand, 1280.
The maritime plan of most of human civilization during our period went as follows:
- Get boats.
- Put weapons on boats.
- Conquer neighboring countries either by military force or by overwhelming trade dominance.
- Instagram shots of you in front of London/Indrapura/Mogadishu.
- Go home.
The Polynesians, on the other hand, appeared to have a different plan:
- Build canoes.
- Sail out into the open ocean for four thousand miles.
- Sweet, Hawai’i!
As the world looked on in tolerant, baffled wonder for thousands of years [sidebar on Vikings], Polynesians repeated steps 1-4, especially step 3, which when you peeled off the little sticker with the question marks turned out to be “employ an array of sophisticated navigational techniques which remain in cultural transmission and even active use today. Also, when you reach an island, use an equally sophisticated array of terraforming techniques to make an unfamiliar landscape ecologically viable for human life. Also, eat a balanced diet, because scurvy is for white people.”
The Polynesians did their eastern Pacific exploration around our period, and may have settled Easter Island and Hawai’i around then, too, if not a little earlier. Polynesian colonies were set up on little stubs of volcanic rock, hideously isolated archipelagos, even sub-polar islands. They probably hung out with medieval Peruvians, or at least, they made enough American contact to get ahold of sweet potatoes. [Sidebar on sweet potatoes.] And they found New Zealand, and settled in, and those who stuck around became the Māori.
And then hundreds of years later the islands of the Polynesian triangle were conquered by Europeans and the Europeans did their damndest to put that little ??? sticker back on the four-part plan, because, you know, people without shirts could not possibly be world explorers. But we do not have to listen to them. When I said those navigational techniques are still in use today, I mean literally, today, because in August of this year a group of Maori sailors took off from New Zealand for Rapa Nui, the last leg of the Polynesian triangle that no one’s completed in the modern era, and according to their website they should be landing, in, like, twelve hours, if they haven’t already.
Wise words of the former world-famous professional boxer Muhammad Ali. In an era defined by endless war—when he was drafted and was told that he must fight the communists—his reply was, “No Vietnamese ever called me a nigger”. Consequently, Ali was stripped of his title, expelled from boxing and sentenced to five years in prison.
gonna quote ali more here because it’s some brutal fucking truth.
Why should they ask me to put on a uniform and go 10,000 miles from home and drop bombs and bullets on Brown people in Vietnam while so-called Negro people in Louisville are treated like dogs and denied simple human rights? No I’m not going 10,000 miles from home to help murder and burn another poor nation simply to continue the domination of white slave masters of the darker people the world over. This is the day when such evils must come to an end. I have been warned that to take such a stand would cost me millions of dollars. But I have said it once and I will say it again. The real enemy of my people is here. I will not disgrace my religion, my people or myself by becoming a tool to enslave those who are fighting for their own justice, freedom and equality. If I thought the war was going to bring freedom and equality to 22 million of my people they wouldn’t have to draft me, I’d join tomorrow. I have nothing to lose by standing up for my beliefs. So I’ll go to jail, so what? We’ve been in jail for 400 years.”
Did you know that Egypt, has the fewest pyramids in Africa?
Did you know that Sudan, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe have more pyramids (225 pyramids in Sudan alone) then all of Egypt.
There are remains of pyramids in South Africa, all the way along the Eastern and Northern parts of Africa and archeologists now believe that they may have found the remains of pyramids in West Africa. Why are we only taught that what is now known as Egypt (that tiny strip of land) is the only place where pyramids are in Africa, when in fact the ENTIRE continent of Africa (nearly 400 pyramids not just the six in Egypt) And Archeologist now believe that the pyramids in southern Africa may be the OLDEST pyramids in the world, followed by The Sudanese and Ethiopian pyramids, the West African pyramid ruins, and the North African Pyramids of so-called Egypt. (And im not even going to get into the fact that there are younger pyramids stretching FROM Africa in China, Italy, Europe and South America) WOW Im Amazed
neffera tiy maat bringing one truth at a time Yaaaaaa
March 3rd - On this day in 1857, Britain and France declare war on China, beginning the second Opium War that would last until 1860.
The War began when the Qing Dynasty court rejected the demands from Britain, France, and the US, which included the opening all of China to British merchants, legalising the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese.
Britain declared war primarliy because of the Arrow Incident; Chinese authorities arrested the crew of the Arrow, a Chinese ship that flew the British flag, on suspicion of smuggling. The British authorities demanded their release, stating that the crew were protected under the Treaty of Nanking. The Chinese refused.
The British House of Commons on 3 March 1857 passed a resolution by 263 to 249 against the Chinese Government.
BY: JOE DORAN （杜乔）
In 1801, a pirate named Zheng Yi was busy raiding Canton. Aside from the prerequisite plundering and rum-drinking, he had given his men one specific order: to break into a local brothel and bring him the prostitute Zheng Yi Sao (郑一嫂), or “Zheng Yi’s wife”.
One might expect a sinister fate to have awaited Zheng Yi Sao upon her deliverance to the pirate captain (rape, swiftly followed by murder, being the most obvious). In actuality, Zheng Yi’s intentions were considerably more gentlemanly.
He intended to marry her. And recognizing that her current future prospects were rather limited, Zheng Yi Sao accepted.
But Zheng Yi Sao didn’t intend on spending the rest of her days as some plunder-hungry pirate’s eye candy. She wanted to become a pirate as well, and she did – one of the greatest pirates to have ever lived.
That first part doesn’t do justice, here read this:
Right from the get-go, Zheng Yi Sao displayed a staggering degree of cunning. She happily accepted Zheng Yi’s proposal, but only on the condition that he share his wealth and power with her, equally. Then, while her new husband went about his pirate duties – further plunder and rum-drinking, presumably – she focused on the business side of things. The result was that in six years, she had engineered an alliance between Zheng Yi and his former pirate rivals, amassed a force of some 1500 ships (called the Red Flag Fleet) and created a swashbuckling empire that extended all the way from Korea to Malaysia.
Zheng Yi certainly knew how to pick ‘em.
Unfortunately, Zheng Yi was killed in 1807 after a misunderstanding with a typhoon. Unfortunate for him, but extremely fortunate for Zheng Yi Sao. Refusing to step aside like a good, diligent widow, Zheng Yi Sao took charge of the Red Flag Fleet, convinced her late husband’s First Mate to support her and swiftly set about making herself the most respected and/or feared individual in all the East.
If films/books/video games have taught us anything, it’s that pirates were a rowdy bunch at the best of times, and their attitudes towards women were…less than progressive. Zheng Yi Sao, of course, was having none of that and quickly established a new pirate code to keep her peg-legged men in line. Anyone who looted a town that had already paid tribute had their head cut off and was dumped in the ocean. Anyone caught, or even suspected, of stealing from the treasury had their head cut off and was dumped in the ocean. Anyone who raped a female prisoner had their head cut off and was dumped in the ocean (there’s a pattern there somewhere).
Needless to say, Zheng Yi Sao was not messing around. Not all her laws were quite so decapitation-happy, though. Ugly female prisoners were to be set free, and when a crewmember purchased one of the prettier captives, he had no choice but to marry her.
But if he was unfaithful…head cut off, dumped in the ocean.
After just one year leading her pirate hegemony, Zheng Yi Sao had formed one of the largest navies on the planet, with some 17,000 men under her command. Extorted tributes from merchants across the Chinese seas and from the coastal towns between Macau and Canton swelled her treasury to staggering levels, and her power was so great that she became the de facto government of the region. No longer was she merely a pirate; she was an entire political entity.